Thursday, May 28, 2020

The Smartest Guys in the Room Essay - 2750 Words

Enron: The smartest guys in the room (Essay Sample) Content: NameCourseTutorDateEnron: The Smartest Guys in the Room In the year 2001, Enron Corporation which was a huge energy trading organization in America became insolvent due to the break out of the major financial and accounting scams and schemes. This scandal is one of the most infamous examples of deliberate corporate fraud and incorrect as well as poor corporate governance. This scandal is widely known as one of the biggest financial scandals and instances of bankruptcy in the history of America. The whole sequence of how Enron as a company which was one of the global giants in the energy sector collapsed and went under is well depicted in the documentary called Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room which is centered on the book that was written by Bethany McClean and Peter Elkind who were reporters and authors at Fortune. This film portrays the manner in which the top executives of the company, particular the Chairman who was also the Founder of Enron Kenneth Lay, the C hief Executive Officer Jeffery Skilling and Chief Financial officer Andrew Fastow, as a result of their unsighted power of greed and damaged organizational philosophy steered to the ill-fated collapse of Enron and gave rise to the criminal prosecutions for numerous executives as well as themselves (Mclean and Elkind 75).It can be easily argued that the Enron scandal was aided and facilitated due to the corporate structure that had been changed and instituted by the company. It is through this damaged corporate governance structure that the company was able to enjoy a long period of deception and dishonesty. The company instituted an ill-structured organizational culture, extremely competitive, corrupt rewards and evaluation system, flawed organizational system enveloped around the stock market position as its main objective and cult-like kind of leadership. Jeffery Skilling being the leader at Enron instituted and promoted a culture in which all its personnel were trained to feel th at they were shrewder and superior than others and that they could undertake anything they sought after devoid of any common sense of culpability and responsibility to the stockholders or investors. They were self-centered, highly focused on makeshift incomes and were supposed to be quiet about it all or even aid in concealing whatever transgressions by the top executives that they detected (Thomas 3).The compensation and evaluation system at Enron which characteristically was thought to design and maintain its most valued workers turned out to make personnel infatuated with immediate incomes and individual growth in the company at the cost of corporations losses. The company made use of an up or out evaluation system where each year the bottom ten percent performing employees were sacked inevitably and those who performed greatly were sprinkled with unparalleled financial prizes perceived nowhere else in the market. The recompenses were so overgenerous that it enticed all personnel towards going through with its dysfunctional culture. The corporate structure was also changed to focus on the stock price and position of the company. That is all that mattered to the company. The companys employees were to undertake anything and everything to ensure that the stock price of the company was always up and rising. The aggressive and cult-like kind of leadership that was enforced by Skilling was also what altered the corporate structure of the company. He ensured that the workers believed his assertions and that all of them were working in accordance to the directives and timelines that he had given so as to ensure that maximum productivity was attained at the peak point in time.The central executives of Enron were considered to be the main perpetrators of the Enron scandal and were eventually charged for their crimes. To begin with, Andrew Fastow who was the executive in charge of finance was sentence to six years in prison after he was charged with the crimes of mon ey laundering and fraud which he actually pleaded guilty to. Jeffery Skilling was given a 24 year sentence to jail. He was charged with the crime of stage-managing a sequence of transactions and financial schemes which later resulted in loses as they concealed the debts from the stakeholders. Ken Lay on the other hand, passed on in 2006 due to a heart attack but was charged with nineteen counts of fraud, conspiracy and insider trading in the whole Enron Scandal. Another executive that was charged was Michael Kopper who was given a jail term of 37months for money laundering and wire fraud. Another Enron central executive was Michael Koenig who was charged with the crime of aiding in presenting falsified information to investors and stakeholders. In addition, the law firm known as Arthur Anderson which was being paid one million dollars every week was charged with the crime of the obstruction of justice as it destroyed all of the documents that included the audits done for Enron by th e firm. Later on in the year 2002, the law firm gave in its licenses as well as its rights to practice (Thomas 2).Enron in the year 2000 and 2001 caused the California electricity crisis where the state of California experienced a shortage in the supply of electricity which was brought about by manipulations in the market and shutting down of the pipelines illegally and capping the selling prices of electricity. As a result, California suffered several and expansive black outs. The traders of Enron ensured that they maximized and the most out of these arbitrage opportunities which were basically prospects to make abnormal amounts of money in profit. In other words, they were making profits beyond and above the norm. In the name of deregulation, Enron used market manipulation techniques to decrease the supply levels of electricity. One of these techniques included megawatt laundering which was the way used by Enron for concealing the real sources of the exact amounts of electricity t hat were being retailed on the energy market. Another technique used was overscheduling where Enron influenced the capacity that was available for transference of electricity through the power lines. Enron Company made it appear as if the power lines were jammed and therefore forced the state of California to pay for congestion fees in order to remove congestion on the power lines, an issue that was not there to start with. The consumers felt the pinch because the wholesale prices of electricity went up by almost eight hundred percent. The resulting blackouts really adversely impacted the businesses that were reliant on electricity as well as the consumers who had to live without any power. In order to get power the consumers had to pay almost twenty times the average price that they had been used to paying.The main business undertaken by Enron Corporation included the supply of natural gas. The company also went in on the electricity business by partnering with PG Company. The comp anys business also included communications by selling bandwidth and also pulp and paper companies. As a result of all of these businesses the company was declared the most innovative firm in the industry for six years in a row.The significance of the suicide of Baxter at the beginning of the film was to show the tipping point of the immoral things that the company had done and just how over the top things had escalated to. It brought about the main question as to whether there are evil people and good people. It was debated whether good individuals have the capability of undertaking evil things. More and more people considered the Enron personnel to be good individuals who were partaking in evil immoral things. Baxter who considered himself a good person as he had complained a number of times to Ken Lay about the operations of the company could not take the pressure of what the people termed to be when the whole company came crashing down.The journalist that broke the story underlyi ng in the film is known as Bethany McLean and she brought the story into light through her article dubbed Is Enron Overpriced? in Fortune Magazine. McClean was greatly assisted by Sherron Watkins who had realized that the numbers in Enrons financial statements did not add up and the accounting fraud that was taking place and who had actually made contact with Lay questioning him about the fraud instances.The Enron corporate crime spree was particularly unethical and illegal for several reasons which encompass the exclusion or cover-up of information and the limitation of organizations. The issue of ethics comes about at the aspect where the executives or the personnel with the leadership positions in the companies in making decisions profitable to themselves or to the company. One principle of ethics is the advocacy for the accountability towards the shareholders of any institution (Goldman and Sigsmond 14). One of the means in which the Enron corporate crime spree is associated to ethics is the aspect the executives or directors deliberate and exceedingly favors earnings and financial matters at an advanced level as equated to ethical materials. For example, to start with, the traders of Enron illegally and unlawfully influenced the prices of energy in the state of California in order to create profits and earnings for Enron. The traders did this by instigating electricity failures for power plants all throughout the state and consequently accumulating the demand levels for electricity at an alarming rate. As a consequence, the prices of energy soared and Enron made high profits. For example, in the film, a trader can be perceived making a call to a power plant and asking them to bring about power outage for a couple of hours. The resulting rolling blackouts all over the state of California brought about price increases and this was to the delight of the traders.One other pe... The Smartest Guys in the Room Essay - 2750 Words Enron: The smartest guys in the room (Essay Sample) Content: NameCourseTutorDateEnron: The Smartest Guys in the Room In the year 2001, Enron Corporation which was a huge energy trading organization in America became insolvent due to the break out of the major financial and accounting scams and schemes. This scandal is one of the most infamous examples of deliberate corporate fraud and incorrect as well as poor corporate governance. This scandal is widely known as one of the biggest financial scandals and instances of bankruptcy in the history of America. The whole sequence of how Enron as a company which was one of the global giants in the energy sector collapsed and went under is well depicted in the documentary called Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room which is centered on the book that was written by Bethany McClean and Peter Elkind who were reporters and authors at Fortune. This film portrays the manner in which the top executives of the company, particular the Chairman who was also the Founder of Enron Kenneth Lay, the C hief Executive Officer Jeffery Skilling and Chief Financial officer Andrew Fastow, as a result of their unsighted power of greed and damaged organizational philosophy steered to the ill-fated collapse of Enron and gave rise to the criminal prosecutions for numerous executives as well as themselves (Mclean and Elkind 75).It can be easily argued that the Enron scandal was aided and facilitated due to the corporate structure that had been changed and instituted by the company. It is through this damaged corporate governance structure that the company was able to enjoy a long period of deception and dishonesty. The company instituted an ill-structured organizational culture, extremely competitive, corrupt rewards and evaluation system, flawed organizational system enveloped around the stock market position as its main objective and cult-like kind of leadership. Jeffery Skilling being the leader at Enron instituted and promoted a culture in which all its personnel were trained to feel th at they were shrewder and superior than others and that they could undertake anything they sought after devoid of any common sense of culpability and responsibility to the stockholders or investors. They were self-centered, highly focused on makeshift incomes and were supposed to be quiet about it all or even aid in concealing whatever transgressions by the top executives that they detected (Thomas 3).The compensation and evaluation system at Enron which characteristically was thought to design and maintain its most valued workers turned out to make personnel infatuated with immediate incomes and individual growth in the company at the cost of corporations losses. The company made use of an up or out evaluation system where each year the bottom ten percent performing employees were sacked inevitably and those who performed greatly were sprinkled with unparalleled financial prizes perceived nowhere else in the market. The recompenses were so overgenerous that it enticed all personnel towards going through with its dysfunctional culture. The corporate structure was also changed to focus on the stock price and position of the company. That is all that mattered to the company. The companys employees were to undertake anything and everything to ensure that the stock price of the company was always up and rising. The aggressive and cult-like kind of leadership that was enforced by Skilling was also what altered the corporate structure of the company. He ensured that the workers believed his assertions and that all of them were working in accordance to the directives and timelines that he had given so as to ensure that maximum productivity was attained at the peak point in time.The central executives of Enron were considered to be the main perpetrators of the Enron scandal and were eventually charged for their crimes. To begin with, Andrew Fastow who was the executive in charge of finance was sentence to six years in prison after he was charged with the crimes of mon ey laundering and fraud which he actually pleaded guilty to. Jeffery Skilling was given a 24 year sentence to jail. He was charged with the crime of stage-managing a sequence of transactions and financial schemes which later resulted in loses as they concealed the debts from the stakeholders. Ken Lay on the other hand, passed on in 2006 due to a heart attack but was charged with nineteen counts of fraud, conspiracy and insider trading in the whole Enron Scandal. Another executive that was charged was Michael Kopper who was given a jail term of 37months for money laundering and wire fraud. Another Enron central executive was Michael Koenig who was charged with the crime of aiding in presenting falsified information to investors and stakeholders. In addition, the law firm known as Arthur Anderson which was being paid one million dollars every week was charged with the crime of the obstruction of justice as it destroyed all of the documents that included the audits done for Enron by th e firm. Later on in the year 2002, the law firm gave in its licenses as well as its rights to practice (Thomas 2).Enron in the year 2000 and 2001 caused the California electricity crisis where the state of California experienced a shortage in the supply of electricity which was brought about by manipulations in the market and shutting down of the pipelines illegally and capping the selling prices of electricity. As a result, California suffered several and expansive black outs. The traders of Enron ensured that they maximized and the most out of these arbitrage opportunities which were basically prospects to make abnormal amounts of money in profit. In other words, they were making profits beyond and above the norm. In the name of deregulation, Enron used market manipulation techniques to decrease the supply levels of electricity. One of these techniques included megawatt laundering which was the way used by Enron for concealing the real sources of the exact amounts of electricity t hat were being retailed on the energy market. Another technique used was overscheduling where Enron influenced the capacity that was available for transference of electricity through the power lines. Enron Company made it appear as if the power lines were jammed and therefore forced the state of California to pay for congestion fees in order to remove congestion on the power lines, an issue that was not there to start with. The consumers felt the pinch because the wholesale prices of electricity went up by almost eight hundred percent. The resulting blackouts really adversely impacted the businesses that were reliant on electricity as well as the consumers who had to live without any power. In order to get power the consumers had to pay almost twenty times the average price that they had been used to paying.The main business undertaken by Enron Corporation included the supply of natural gas. The company also went in on the electricity business by partnering with PG Company. The comp anys business also included communications by selling bandwidth and also pulp and paper companies. As a result of all of these businesses the company was declared the most innovative firm in the industry for six years in a row.The significance of the suicide of Baxter at the beginning of the film was to show the tipping point of the immoral things that the company had done and just how over the top things had escalated to. It brought about the main question as to whether there are evil people and good people. It was debated whether good individuals have the capability of undertaking evil things. More and more people considered the Enron personnel to be good individuals who were partaking in evil immoral things. Baxter who considered himself a good person as he had complained a number of times to Ken Lay about the operations of the company could not take the pressure of what the people termed to be when the whole company came crashing down.The journalist that broke the story underlyi ng in the film is known as Bethany McLean and she brought the story into light through her article dubbed Is Enron Overpriced? in Fortune Magazine. McClean was greatly assisted by Sherron Watkins who had realized that the numbers in Enrons financial statements did not add up and the accounting fraud that was taking place and who had actually made contact with Lay questioning him about the fraud instances.The Enron corporate crime spree was particularly unethical and illegal for several reasons which encompass the exclusion or cover-up of information and the limitation of organizations. The issue of ethics comes about at the aspect where the executives or the personnel with the leadership positions in the companies in making decisions profitable to themselves or to the company. One principle of ethics is the advocacy for the accountability towards the shareholders of any institution (Goldman and Sigsmond 14). One of the means in which the Enron corporate crime spree is associated to ethics is the aspect the executives or directors deliberate and exceedingly favors earnings and financial matters at an advanced level as equated to ethical materials. For example, to start with, the traders of Enron illegally and unlawfully influenced the prices of energy in the state of California in order to create profits and earnings for Enron. The traders did this by instigating electricity failures for power plants all throughout the state and consequently accumulating the demand levels for electricity at an alarming rate. As a consequence, the prices of energy soared and Enron made high profits. For example, in the film, a trader can be perceived making a call to a power plant and asking them to bring about power outage for a couple of hours. The resulting rolling blackouts all over the state of California brought about price increases and this was to the delight of the traders.One other pe...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Helpful Lessons for Warm Fires in the Firewood Poem

If you are curious about which type of wood burns best in your fireplace, you could consult a list, which would be accurate if not very exciting. But if you wanted to be entertained while getting your information you might turn to a poem about wood. The Firewood Poem was written by the wife of British World War I hero Sir Walter Norris Congreve and is as accurate as any modern scientific research. Lady Celia Congreve is believed to have written it around 1922 for a published book titled  Garden of Verse.  This particular verse expresses how information in the form of a poem can both beautifully  describe things and serve as a guide for burning wood. This poem fetchingly describes the value of certain tree species either for their ability or failure to provide heat from seasoned and unseasoned wood. Lady Congreve likely composed the poem using traditional English folktales passed down through the centuries. It is amazing how accurately and charmingly the poem captures the properties of firewood. The Firewood Poem Beechwood fires are bright and clearIf the logs are kept a year,Chestnuts only good they say,If for logs tis laid away.Make a fire of Elder tree,Death within your house will be;But ash new or ash old,Is fit for a queen with crown of gold Birch and fir logs burn too fastBlaze up bright and do not last,it is by the Irish saidHawthorn bakes the sweetest bread.Elm wood burns like churchyard mould,Een the very flames are coldBut ash green or ash brownIs fit for a queen with golden crown Poplar gives a bitter smoke,Fills your eyes and makes you choke,Apple wood will scent your roomPear wood smells like flowers in bloomOaken logs, if dry and oldkeep away the winters coldBut ash wet or ash drya king shall warm his slippers by. The Poem Explained Traditional folk legends are quite often expressions of early wisdom acquired over time and passed along by word of mouth. Lady Congreve must have taken anecdotes from these to compose this very accurate depiction of the properties of wood and how different tree species burn. She especially pens praises for beech, ash, oak and aromatic fruit trees like apple and pear. Wood science and measurements of the heating properties of wood support her recommendations. The best trees  have a dense cellular wood structure that, when  dry, have greater weight than lighter woods. Wood that is dense will also have to ability to produce more heat over a longer time with longer-lasting coals. On the other hand, her assessments of chestnut, elder, birch, elm, and poplar are spot on and deserve her bad review. They all have low wood cellular densities that rapidly burn with low heat but few coals. These woods produce a lot of smoke but very little heat. Lady Celia Congreves  poem is a cleverly written but non-scientific approach to selecting firewood. It is certainly supported by the sound science of wood burning and heating values.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fame Me a Match by Lauren Barnholdt - 673 Words

The book I am reading is called Fake Me a Match I really liked this book. This book was about his one girls drama with boys her soon to be stepsister and her moms wedding. The author of this book is named Lauren Barnholdt and she wrote this book in a girls perspective of things. This book was very fun to read and kept you wondering what was going to happen next. She used figurative language in her book many times. Figurative speech is it compares two things in way that may shock you examples are smiles, metaphors, idioms and alliteration. In this book the author used figurative language Avery was as clear as mud because she was always telling lies. This is true because Avery was telling Blake her soon to be sister that she was not dating the boy she liked when she actually was. Second, she was telling a big lie that she didn’t switch the matches. Next she lied about not liking the boy who really loves her and breaking his heart when she truly liked him right back. Lastly lying to her mom because they ruined there bridesmaid dresses for her moms wedding and had to get Aery’s friend to fix it without telling her mom. As clear un mud mean she is very unclear because mud is very un-clear. The second example of figurative language I found in this book was when the author said â€Å" They cascade down to the floor in a storm of of scantrons.† The author said this because Sam stunned Avery and made her bump all the scantrons to the floor. Avery was so scared that she

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Arthur Miller Essay Tragedy And The Common Man Summary Example For Students

Arthur Miller Essay Tragedy And The Common Man Summary Arthur MillerI. Personal life A. born in New York City in 1915 and raised in Harlem 1) the Stock market crash in 1929 drastically influenced his developing imagination II. Education1) not much known about his educationa. said that he barely passed high school and did not get into college that first time he appliedb. got into University of Michigan second time applying c. he attended to become a journalist but won the Hopwood Prize for his dramatic script so decided to write about drama insteadIII. Career1) Early job choices a. fresh out of college he decided to work briefly for the Federal Theater Project b. then wrote a couple of radio plays and accounts of military training c. first known book was Situation Normal 2) Popular booksa. Death of a Salesman was his first big hitb. The Crucible was his second big bookPsychology Essays

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Influence of Baroque Music to Classical Music free essay sample

Music of any period reflects, in its own way, some of the same influences, tendencies, and generative impulses that are found in the other arts of that time (Donna, 2005). Thus the word baroque, usually used despairingly by eighteenth-century art critics to describe the art and architecture of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, came to be applied also to the music of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. After some years after the death of Johann Sebastian Bach, the ornate, formal and strict form of the High Baroque became old-fashion and lost its favor.Music slowly began to change form the style and forms of the High Baroque to a simpler yet tuneful form around 1750. The period following the Baroque is called the Classical period. The transition to the new styles and forms of Classical music was, like all transitions, rather complicated. The use of the baroque bass figure lost Its taste and became obsolete. We will write a custom essay sample on Influence of Baroque Music to Classical Music or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The preference of a simple structure rather than polyphonic constructions became dominant most especially in secular music. There was also a preference for one clear melodic line without melting with many others.Although arouse music differs greatly from classical music, they have striking similarities as evident in specific styles and forms. Though Classical composers tend to avoid the antiquated Baroque, one cannot fully abandon the styles and forms of the immediate predecessors. Instead, these styles were further developed to form a new meaning and use on the new musical structure. Forms Like the opera and orchestra revolutionized-?the former branching out from serious to variety, and the latter have a complete upheaval. Moreover, on the late Classical period, great composers such s Beethoven and Mozart studied the works of Baroque composers Bach and Handel. The later works of the classical composers were characterized of having Innovative yet powerful polyphony inspired by Bachs masterpieces, and contrapuntal melodic lines imbued with the oratorios and suites of Handel. CHAPTER II DISCUSSION General characteristics of baroque music Baroque composers were united in a common goal: to express or represent a wide range of feelings vividly and vigorously.They sought musical means to express or arouse the affections. Rather than they express their personal feelings, composers anted to represent human emotions in a generic sense (Norton, 2010). The music is regarded for its distinct, formal compositional styles and forms. Style Various styles laid the foundation of baroque music. Expressive and expansive In melody yet deeply rooted In choral harmonies, baroque music is typically highly rhythmical and quite easy to listen to.The comfortable regularity and lively rhythmic qualities of much of baroque music have made it appealing to many modern OFF and stirring melodies, engaging conversation-like dialogues in sound, and rich harmonies and textures (Daniels Wagner, 1975). Modality was replaced by analogy which gave a strong feeling of Joy or lament. In 2008, Ferris explains that composers developed and theoreticians articulated the tonal system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note, and all of the pitches are more or less similar to the tonic.Composers at that time recognized and utilized triad chords as an entity, which resulted to meaningful and consonant units of sound. The use of triads most especially the three principle chords (tonic, dominant, and subdivision) paved a stable and harmonic direc tion to tonal music (The Baroque Period). Thus, the tonal system of harmony was wholly adopted during the seventeenth century. In addition, the continuous use of the polyphonic texture during the Early Baroque was revolutionized to form a new texture-?the homophony.Imitative polyphony (more than one melodic line) was an extremely important factor in writing and playing music (The Baroque Era, Examine, 2008). New forms of polyphonic music were developing because baroque composers felt that the art of counterpoint was essential to their artistry. On the other hand, the homophobic method (a musical technique that displays a vast separation amongst he melody line and the accompaniment) was gaining acceptance and use quite rapidly (The Baroque Era).The homophobic musical style played a significant role in opera and solo vocal music because it focused the listeners concentration in the poetic melody of the singer. Most pieces in baroque music have the basso continuo Inch gave way to uniformity and unity. Basso continuo, or figured bass, is an accompaniment which consists of a bass part with numbers which specify the chords to be played above it. Musical works containing a continuo part helped to convey harmonic support of chords under the melodic line (The Baroque Era).Examine (2008) states that basso continuo is usually played by at least two instruments: an organ or harpsichord and low melodic instrument like the cello or bassoon. Examine (2008) also adds that the organist of harpsichordist plays the bass part with the left hand which is also played by the cellist or bassoonist. With the right hand, the keyboard player improvises chords or melodic line by following the numbers. Because the numbers only indicate a basic chord, the performer has a wide field of freedom. With continuity of rhythm and melody, baroque music also features continuity of dynamic bevel.This means that the volume stays the same for a period of time, and then there is a sudden shift to a different dynamic level. There are no gradual changes in dynamics (such as a crescendo or decrescendo). Terraced dynamics were used as the main keyboard instrument was the harpsichord, which could only be played in two modes, either forte (loud) or piano (soft), precluding the ability to accomplish crescendos or decrescendos (Examine, 2008). Moreover, baroque composers fashion their work with different kinds of ornamentation.For Baroque musicians, ornamentation is not merely decoration that as no intrinsic value but rather the chief way of moving affections. One should, therefore, try in his ornamentation, as in all other aspects of his interpretation, to effectively communicate the sense of the music. In a lyrical movement, baroque performers intensify the expressiveness through the use of smooth melodic ornaments, and in a movement that seems complete, add almost nothing besides essential accidental trills (www. Masquerade. FRR). Eventually, both vocalists and instrumentalists recognized the principal ways of ornamenting a melodic line.First, brief formulas called ornaments-?such as trills, turns, postgraduate, and rodents-?were added to certain notes to emphasize accents, cadences, and other significant points in the melody (Norton, 2010). Second, more extended embellishments-?such as scale and arpeggio passages, and other types of flourishes-?were added to create a free and elaborate paraphrase of the written line (Norton, 2010). Forms In 1 573, a group of musicians and intellectuals came together to discuss various subjects, especially the desire to revive Greek drama.This group of individuals is known as the Florentine Cameras, they wanted lines to be sung instead of simply being spoken (Styles of the Baroque Period). The group developed a new vocal style based on the music of the ancient Greek tragedy. This new style followed the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. It was sung by a soloist with only a simple choral accompaniment and was, thus, homophobic; the Cameras rejected polyphony because it would obscure the all-important text (Examine, 2008). Together with the opera, the oratorio stands as a major development in baroque local music.Like opera, the oratorio is a large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra usually performed during the Lenten season in the oratory, room which its name was derived; it is usually set to a narrative text. Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no acting, scenery, or costumes. Most oratorios are based on biblical stories, but usually they are not intended for religious services (Devote, 1956) The genre reached its heights in the late baroque period in the works of George Frederic Handel such as the Messiah with its well-known chorus of continuous praise of Hallelujah.Likewise, the baroque mass is an instrumentally a ccompanied vocal music tended to be a conservative musical form. As the seventeenth century progressed, masses Egan to incorporate concerto style and to have instrumental accompaniments. These developments led to the five masses of J. S. Bach, whose B Minor Mass is one of the towering monuments of Western music (Daniels ; Wagner, 1975). One of the most significant aspects of the Baroque period was the emergence of independent instrumental music. Its development was not entirely what the Florentine composers had intended; the new forms, Kittens (1966) stated, were by-products of reform. He use of the modal system was broken down, and establishment of the major- minor tonality were considered. But, the old contrapuntal style was not abolished entirely. The known form of during the Baroque is the fugue. According to Examine (2008), a fugue, written for a group of instruments or voices, or for a single instrument, is a polyphonic composition which is based on one theme called subject. Composers rote fugues both as independent pieces and as sections within preludes or toccatas Norton 2010). Throughout a fugue, different melodic lines, or voices, imitate the subject.Fugue subjects usually have a clearly defined character and a lively rhythm. And became a type of independent instrumental music. The baroque suite is a set of dance-inspired movements, all in the same key but different in tempo, meter and character. It is performed by a solo instrument, a small group of instruments, or an orchestra (Wright, 2008). The movements of a suite are usually in BABY form. The section A, which starts from the tonic key then shifts to the dominant, is balanced by the section B, which starts from dominant then shifts to the tonic (Examine, 2008, p. 03). Moreover, the orchestra during the baroque period was a performing group on instruments of the violin family. The baroque orchestra was consisted of ten to thirty r forty players. At its core were the basso continuo and upper strings. The use of Nodding, brass and percussion instruments are variable depending on the demand of the piece to be played. An aria (in English works sometimes called an air) signifies melody apart from the harmony, but especially a musical composition for single vice or instrument, with an accompaniment of other voices or instruments.The aria n Bachs suites is a short binary movement in a flowing rhythm in not very slow common or duple meter (Devote, 1956). Influence of baroque music to classical music In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as Classicism, which sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity and especially those of Classical Greece. Changes in musical perception on style and form are likely caused by a sum of economic, religious, sociological and political factors.It is interesting to examine the music created within the hazy boundaries between the periods. Style Norton (2010) believes that at its best, Classical music reached a consistently high tankard and possessed the qualities of a noble simplicity, balance, perfection of form, diversity within unity, seriousness of purpose, and use of ornamentation. The transition to the new style was rather complicated. There was a general relaxation of formality, and for a while nothing much to take its place (Daniels ; Wagner, 1975).The relaxation in the court life favored the Rococo (derived from the French word Rockville referring to the artificial rework), a reaction to the formalism, rigidity, and seriousness that had become characteristics of the Baroque, and a decorative style hat was lighter, smaller in scale, and wittier than the Baroque (Daniels ; nagger, 1975, Kittens, 1966). The melody most typically consisted of a series of a series of short motives, repeated several times and cast in four or eight measure phrases.The melody is also generously supplied with a variety of trills, mo rdents, and the like. Classical music is basically homophobic. It seemed a proper alternative to the heavy polyphonic textures of the High Baroque. However, texture is treated as flexibly as rhythm. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another. A work may begin myopically with a melody and simple accompaniment but then change to a more complex polyphonic texture that features two simultaneous melodies or melodic fragments imitated among the various instruments.In addition, polyphony Nas piously maintained when it came to church music. It was used for intensification, contrast, and development in the late works of Haydn and Beethoven part dance form of the Baroque, through a gradual enlargement and refinement, to the sonata-form of the Classical period. The end result was a form that remained in a dominant position in the field of instrumental music for almost two hundred years Exists, 1966). Indeed, it is a marvel of structural flexibility, capable of the greatest conceivable variety of expressive content.By the beginning of the eighteenth century, it was generally cast in a form consisting of three movements arranged in fast-slow- fast sequence. In sonatas and other pieces for violin, gradual increases and decreases of dynamics had long been employed; a theorist addressed the problem of crescendo and decrescendo receiving considerable attention. The Italian opera orchestra, too, had been familiar with swelling of tone. The solution is the borrowing baroque style. Terraced dynamics had provided composers with one means of achieving contrast.Operas employing this device were widely performed throughout Europe. Form ere practice of the baroque era was the standard against which new forms was measured, and there came to be a division between sacred works, which held more closely to the Baroque style from secular works, which were in the new style. A new orchestra developed during the classical period. It was a standard group of four sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion unlike the baroque which could Larry from piece to piece.The number of musicians in a classical orchestra was greater than in a baroque group. Classical composers exploited timbres of each instruments. Unlike baroque composers, they did not treat instruments interchangeably. The Classical composers were the first to orchestrate for instruments like clarinet, trombone, and piccolo (Daniels, Wagner, et al, 1975). According to Examine (2008), the classical orchestra had developed into a flexible and colorful instrument to which composers could entrust their most powerful and dramatic musical conceptions. The mass continued to be an important form for Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. During the Classical period, masses involved orchestra, soloists, and choir in a fully integrated work, using organizational principles derived from instrumental forms (The Classical Period). The majority of Mozart masses were in Missal bribes type, the simultaneous setting of several lines of text, or the omission of certain sections of the mass, because the Archbishop Colored of Syllabus had no patience with long Masses.Effects of the influences of baroque music Long after the Baroque era ended, and their music was all but forgotten, both Handel ND Bach were rediscovered in the Classical era. All great Classical composers like Mozart and Beethoven, after Bach and Handel, studied their works and learned from them in grasping and further developing Bachs and Handels science of baroque composition in such a way, that something entirely new emerged, pointing into the future.Proficient Knolling Amadeus Mozart ere works of Bach, such as the a-minor Mass and the six motets, and Handel, for example, the Messiah had deeply influenced the works of Mozart in his last years of Meriting music. Mozart was thoroughly familiar with the music of Handel. During his never lost his taste for it. One can hear Handels influence in some of Mozart early Narks, such as The Solemn Vespers, and in later works such as the Great Mass and the Requiem Mass in D minor.In fact, the opening page of Mozart Requiem, beautiful as it is, is merely a reworking of the opening choral movement of Handels funeral music for Queen Caroline (Longish, 2008). At the age of thirty, Mozart, visiting the SST. Thomas Church in Leipzig, upon hearing a Bach motet for the first time, exclaimed Now there is music from which a man can learn something. Then, the harbormaster at Leipzig gave Mozart a copy of the score to all six of the Bach motets. They were a profound influence on his late style.In the last two years of his life, Mozart counterpoint became even more exquisite and complex than before Longish, 2008). Moreover, Mozart was attracted to the main genres in which Bach excelled-?keyboard sonatas, keyboard concertos, symphonies and operas. Bachs singing-style themes, tasteful use of expressive motives, suspenseful harmonic ambiguities, and consistent thematic contrasts became permanent features of Mozart writing (Portraits). Ludwig van Beethoven Having Mozart as his model for his compositional styles, Beethoven had been familiar to the styles of the works of Bach and Handel.He continuously borrowed ideas, techniques and texture of the music of the baroque in his latter musical career. In his later years, wanting to compose certain pieces in a more contrapuntal style, thieving worked hard at mastering counterpoint. He studied the music of Bach, Handel, and even of Palestinian. In his late music, he developed a style of counterpoint that is more reminiscent of Handel than Bach. His fugues in his late period are very Hitachi in nature and quite unique in the history of music (Longish, 2008). Beethoven showed his constant concern with the work of J.S. Bach. He constantly requested copies of newly published editions, for example, a copy of the a-minor Mass, from the well-known publishers in Leipzig and Z;rich. In Beethovens sketchbooks, interspersed among work on his own compositions, there are numerous entries of short or long passages from Bachs works, among them, the Chromatic Fantasy, and fugues from The Well-Tempered Clavier and The Art of the Fugue Cramer, 2001). For Beethoven, the sense and aim of the study of his predecessors, Nas indeed his own further development, toward new ideas.Beethoven described this very clearly in a letter to the Archbishop Rudolph, in which he clearly names each and Handel as the only true geniuses, among his predecessors: The aim of the Normal of art, as indeed in the whole creation, is freedom, progress; if we moderns have not the same firmness as our ancestors, yet the refinement of our manners has in many ways enlarged our sphere of action. Pieces Great Mass in C Minor (K. 427) by Mozart Mozart wrote his Mass soon after his friend Baron Gottfried van Sweeten loaned him the works of Bach and Handel.These had a profound effect on the young composer, a nd his own Mass setting shows the influence of his baroque predecessors peppered, 2006). Mozart has been actually moved to create this Mass in reaction to his first exposure to Bach and Handel. He imitated Handels dotted rhythms (the Kings. The Mass draws considerably on Mozart study of the Baroque masters the influence of Bach and Hneed are evident in the great choral movements and the Domino Dues and Quondam recall Alexandra Scarlatti and Pergolas respectively.In 1959, Burk mentions, for only the second time in his life, and profiting by the example of Handel, he used a double chorus. Furthermore, London (1990) adds, the Influence of J. S. Bach and Handel has been noticed in its choral writing, especially that of the highly chromatic Quiz tolls, and in the double fugue of the Hosanna; the lavish, Italianize Et incarnates est. is a coloratura aria with showy cadenza. According to Paul Massacres, The C minor Mass is Mozart at his most baroque.He is clearly looking backwards, at least in the choral movements, sever of which might have been written 20 or 30 years earlier. So you get this fascinating Juxtaposition: on the one hand, the flexibility, the eave sensuality of the solo vocal passages, with, for the sopranos, that fresh, agile, quasi-instrumental writing that Mozart loved so much; and on the other, the colossal, almost baroque choral movements with their static chords and often quite slow moving harmonies. String Quartet No. 15, pop. 32 by Beethoven each (1738) wrote, The original cause of finish and end of all music, also of the thorough-bass (basso continuo), should be nothing other than to be for the worship of God and recreation of the spirit. Where this is not taken into consideration, is not music, but rather a diabolical bawling and mindless singsong. Perhaps, Beethovens embodiment of this idea is most apparent in the third movement of his String Quartet No. 15, pop. 132, entitled Hillier Danknesss nines Geneses an die tithe, in deer latencies Tonal (Holy Song of Thanksgiving, by a convalescent to the Divinity, in Lydia Mode).The Hillier Danknesss introduces a simple, four-voice Chorale, with a short introduction and short contrapuntal interludes, redefined in the further development purely inspired by the fugal works of Bach. After the first strophe of the chorale, a new element, a second subject, is introduced into the imposition, a part in D-major: Nine Kraft if;Helen (Feeling new strength), which makes it a double fugue and which initially appears to be in great contrast to the Chorale (Cramer, 2001). Indeed, Beethoven had constructed a clash of tonalities by combining various scales which exceeded beyond the Classical tradition.In a period in which his compositions show his deepest levels of self-pondering, Beethoven turned to the Baroque, and particularly to Bach, for support and insight. And in these thoughts, he shows a bold adherence to the Baroque tradition, with its forms and practices close to his heart and mind (Examine, 2008). Perhaps, more than any other Norm of Beethoven, the Healing Danknesss shows an appreciation and reverence for the past. CHAPTER Ill CONCLUSION This study has presented that the Late Baroque characteristics, indeed, had greatly influenced the musical styles and forms used by composers of the Classical Period.Though the main reception to the Baroque period was away from it, Classical music uncanny similarity of both classical and baroque music. The tonality was the basic foundation which was utterly the same. The freely ornamented trills and mordents of melodic lines, the entity of the contrapuntal polyphony in church masses, the great entrant of the terraced dynamics, and the dramatic movements of the sonata-form are all but a few influences of the High Baroque. Classical forms such as the orchestra, oratorio, and the mass are merely rev olutionized and developed of the forms of those of baroque. The oratorio became a versatile form; the orchestra was elaborated into a bigger yet systematical group of instruments, and the mass extended its variety to different forms. Classical composers such as Mozart and Beethoven had a turning point of their traditional Classical styles in the later period of their compositional styles. They were feely influenced by the baroque composers contrapuntal and fugal works for they studied extensively the works of the well-known baroque composers Bach and Handel.One can deduce that Classical musicians had different ways of reacting towards the end of the baroque: others seem to incorporate new medium while others retained yet innovated some baroque entities. However, we can say that the predecessor had certainly been a major influence amongst all Classical musicians. Future researchers who would research further the influences of the Baroque can be aided by this paper. Researchers who would focus on musical styles and forms must now advanced music theory for them to completely understand the concept that Mould be discussed.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Wild Geese by Martha Ostenso essays

Wild Geese by Martha Ostenso essays A lot of great Canadian authors base their books on the prairie or land and its inhabitants. Wild Geese by Martha Ostenso is a wonderful example of this. Throughout the novel, many references are made to natural elements and also animals. Three very noticeable references could be picked out. These references were made to Judith, who is seen as a wild horse, to the wild geese that always move to new places, and also to the weather and how the family's attitudes and emotions, especially Caleb's, are changed by it. Wild Geese are talked about quite frequently throughout this novel. There are many references to people who are compared to the wild goose, along with what they symbolize. Lind Archer, the schoolteacher, is considered the wild goose for the first while. She came from a large municipality, "to a region beyond human warmth...beyond even human isolation..." (Ostenso, p.34). Mark Jordan is also compared to a wild goose for fundamentally the same reasons as Lind. When he first meets Lind, she thinks that his cry seems to be a, "smote cry upon the heart like the loneliness of the universe..." (Ostenso, p.53). Both Mark and Lind can be compared here, because they are both lonely and isolated. The wild goose symbolizes moving, loneliness, and isolation. Moving is shown when Mark and Lind come from their large municipalities to move up north to a very cold and unfriendly place. Loneliness is shown again through Mark and Lind and how they both miss their life before. They have ver y few friends and are moderately secluded to a very little area. Isolation is also shown by the fact that they are secluded and also that they are in the middle of nowhere with no one within a close distance to talk to. They feel isolated form society because the farms are so spread apart. In the end Mark and Lind move together to go back to the large municipality and wild geese are referred to again. They moved back to where they came f ...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Business ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Business ethics - Essay Example This has therefore, made the Nuance Company place lawsuits against its competitors with the aim of protecting its intellectual property (Rao, â€Å"Nuance Slaps Vlingo†). Nuance Company has been experiencing a problem from its competitor where they attempt to copy its work. Nuance Company has been developing voice and imaging recognition technologies, which have enabled the company to emerge as a formidable competitor with a six billion dollar market cap. Nuance’s achievement in the market has therefore, increased the number of competitive companies aiming at backsliding it in order to acquire its achievement level in the market (Rao, â€Å"Nuance Slaps Vlingo†). Vlingo Company is one of these competitors and has received support from AT&T, Charles River Ventures and Yahoo in infringing on several Nuances’ patents. This infringement includes â€Å"U.S. patent no. 6, 487, 534, B1,† which relates to a â€Å"Distributed Client-Server Speech Recognition System,† â€Å"U.S. patent no. 6,785,653 B1,† â€Å"U.S. patent no. 6,839,669 B1,† â€Å"U.S. patent number No. 7,058,573 B1,† and â€Å"U.S. paten t no. 7,127,393 B2.† However, the dilemma experienced by the Nuance Company can be resolved through the use of California’s anti- competition laws and Patent law, to place lawsuit against Vlingo Company and its supporters. California’s anti-competition laws are charged with a responsibility of protecting the intellectual property of many California companies, from being stolen or infringed by other companies. Through the use of these laws, Nuance Company can therefore get a chance of suing and pressing charges against Vlingo, AT&T, Charles River Ventures and Yahoo for attempting to copy its work. The company can also sue Vlingo, by using Patent Law meant for solving complaint that relate to patent infringement. Patent law of